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E una dintre cele mai cunoscute categorii de frigidere, reusind sa imbine intr-un singur ansamblu structural atat un frigider propriu-zis, cat si un congelator. Sotia tot spune ca neaparat sa aiba decongelare automata si sa nu mai fie zgomotot, pe mine m-ar ajuta sa fie mai bine compartimentat, urasc sa am toate produsele inghesuite in frigider. O[5A , M. Nu am testat mai multe modele, eu am cumparat unul din carrefour si s-a potrivit. In case you were wondering about the tmpl function in the code snippet: Acest model are unul dintre cele mai mari congelatoare de l, volumul net total fiind de de l. Stiu ca unele sunt facute sa reziste la temperaturi scazute, asa ca avand in vedere ca nu este cald tot timpul in magazin, una care sa nu-mi faca probleme din punctul asta de vedere este ceea ce caut.

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C ]2T? F "VQ? YO;W4 F: H YOG? XM" MPP! F MYYT. A MFN? W MD[! There are two ways to attach a DOM element to a view: A new element will be created for you by the framework and a reference to it will be available at the el property. Next, I set the html of the el DOM element to the output of processing a JSON version of the model associated with the view through the compiled template.

This populates the template, giving you a data-complete set of markup in just a few short lines of code. The Backbone events attribute allows us to attach event listeners to either custom selectors, or directly to el if no selector is provided. The only thing to really keep in mind is that any string callback supplied to the events attribute must have a corresponding function with the same name within the scope of your view.

There are a few different ways to retrieve a model from a collection. The most straight-forward is to use Collection. Sometimes you may also want to get a model based on its client id. The client id is a property that Backbone automatically assigns models that have not yet been saved. Under the covers, Backbone.

In the above example if we wanted to log an event when.

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Rather than adding or removing models individually, you might occasionally wish to update an entire collection at once. The complete list of what Underscore can do is beyond the scope of this guide, but can be found in its official docs. In Backbone, routers are used to help manage application state and for connecting URLs to application events.

Some examples of routes may be seen below:. An application will usually have at least one route mapping a URL route to a function that determines what happens when a user reaches that particular route. This relationship is defined as follows:. Let us now define our first controller by extending Backbone.

Note the inline comments in the code example below as they continue the rest of the lesson on routers. As of Backbone 0. This permits you to define routes such as http: Next, we need to initialize Backbone. The Backbone. As an aside, if you would like to save application state to the URL at a particular point you can use the.

It simply updates your URL fragment without the need to trigger the hashchange event:. It is also possible for Router. When learning how to use Backbone, an important and commonly overlooked area by tutorials is namespacing. If you already have experience with namespacing in JavaScript, the following section will provide some advice on how to specifically apply concepts you know to Backbone, however I will also be covering explanations for beginners to ensure everyone is on the same page.

The basic idea around namespacing is to avoid collisions with other objects or variables in the global namespace. One popular pattern for namespacing in JavaScript is opting for a single global variable as your primary object of reference. A skeleton implementation of this where we return an object with functions and properties can be found below:.

A Backbone-specific example might look like this:. Here we can return a set of views, but the same technique could return an entire collection of models, views and routers depending on how you decide to structure your application. Although this works for certain situations, the biggest challenge with the single global variable pattern is ensuring that no one else has used the same global variable name as you have in the page.

One solution to this problem, as mentioned by Peter Michaux, is to use prefix namespacing. This is effective from the perspective of trying to lower the chances of a particular variable existing in the global scope, but remember that a uniquely named object can have the same effect. This aside, the biggest issue with the pattern is that it can result in a large number of global objects once your application starts to grow.

There are several other variations on the single global variable pattern out in the wild, however having reviewed quite a few, I felt the prefixing approach applied best to Backbone. Object Literals have the advantage of not polluting the global namespace but assist in organizing code and parameters logically. Unlike simple global variables, Object Literals often also take into account tests for the existence of a variable by the same name, which helps reduce the chances of collision.

This example demonstrates two ways you can check to see if a namespace already exists before defining it. I commonly use Option 2. One can also opt for adding properties directly to the namespace such as your views, in the following example:. This pattern has a number of benefits. Note that there are really only minor syntactical differences between the Object Literal pattern and a standard JSON data set.

If for any reason you wish to use JSON for storing your configurations instead e. An extension of the Object Literal pattern is nested namespacing. A sample implementation of nested namespacing with Backbone may look like this:. This is readable, clearly organized, and is a relatively safe way of namespacing your Backbone application.

Reviewing the namespace patterns above, the option that I prefer when writing Backbone applications is nested object namespacing with the object literal pattern. Single global variables may work fine for applications that are relatively trivial. I feel this pattern achieves both of these objectives and is a good choice for most Backbone development.

Scaffolding can assist in expediting how quickly you can begin a new application by creating the basic files required for a project automatically. You may have to update any third party dependencies e. Brunch can be installed via the nodejs package manager and is easy to get started with.

Andrew de Andrade has pointed out that DocumentCloud themselves usually only use a single router in most of their applications. In both, I cover alternative solutions and my thoughts on the suitability of current MVC solutions for scaled application development. Backbone can be used for building both trivial and complex applications as demonstrated by the many examples Ashkenas has been referencing in the Backbone documentation.

At the end of the day, the key to building large applications is not to build large applications in the first place. Dojo and Dojo Mobile may also be of interest as these have also been used to build significantly complex apps by other developers. This API is so intuitive in fact that switching from storing records in a local data-store e.

As you may know, node. Express is a small web-development framework written with node. It supports a number of useful features such as intuitive views, robust routing and a focus on high performance. Next on the list are MongoDB and Mongoose. MongoDB is an open-source, document-oriented database store designed with scalability and agility in mind. One of the goals of Mongo is to try bridging the gap between key-value stores speed, scalability and relational databases rich functionality.

Mongoose is a JavaScript library that simplifies how we interact with Mongo. It also adds chaining features into the mix, allowing for a slightly more expressive way of dealing with our data. In addition to supporting Express out of the box, it boasts a number of useful features including support for mixins, includes, caching, template inheritance and much more.

See here for the source. We must first include the node dependencies required by our application. These are Express, Mongoose and Path a module containing utilities for dealing with file paths. Next, create a new Express server. After this, connect Mongoose up to a database in our case, localhost should suffice.

A Mongoose model for any Todo item can now be easily defined by passing a schema instance to mongoose. The configure methods allows us to setup what we need for the current environment with our Express server. Should you prefer to switch out Jade for an alternative view engine, this can be done fairly trivially. For example, to switch to EJS, you would simply write app.

Express makes use of common HTTP verbs get, put, post etc. Additional configuration values can be passed as the second parameter, such as the custom title specified below. The callback to our next route supports querying for todos based on a specific ID. As you might have guessed, this is a hint that routes can also be regular expression literals if we wished to do something more complex.

Similarly, we want to support updating todos based on a specific ID as well. Below we can create new Todo models and simply save them. We of course also want to support deleting todos e. This also works based on a specific todo ID. Reviewing window. Models inside of a collection then use url to construct URLs of their own. This is the only change necessary to our existing Backbone application in order to get things working.

Pretty easy, right? The Jade templates for our application cover declarative markup for both the index layout. See here for the complete file or below for a sample. In the first, cd to your MongoDB bin directory or type in the complete path to it. This allows you to easily install Express, Mongoose, Jade and optionally MongoDB if you prefer to through npm the node package manager.

Similar to the section on writing an application with Node. Sinatra is a much smaller, more light-weight alternative to it. Whilst a very basic Rails application may require a more strict project structure such as requiring the use of controllers, views and routing etc. For those who are familiar with more Rails, you probably know that it requires a separate routes file to define how an application should be responding to requests.

These are then piped into the relevant models and controllers as needed. Sinatra takes a more straight-forward approach, providing us with the most simple path to handling routing. By declaring get , post , put or delete actions, we can inform Sinatra to add a new route, which we can then have respond to requests.

The framework is particularly useful for writing APIs, widgets and small-scale applications that can power the backend of a client-heavy application. As mentioned, we will be using it to power our API. Before beginning this section, I recommend installing Sinatra on your system.

A guide to doing this can be found in the prerequisites section lower down in the article. Semantically, a route follows quite a simple structure:. If we now navigated to http: We associate a pair of an action and route with code we would like sent back to the browser executed if the route is reached.

As you probably noticed in the above example, routes can include named parameters e. We can actually access the content of these routes using the params hash as follows:. Sinatra also supports route matching via splats, wildcards and regular expressions. For more information on this I recommend reading the official docs. And if we wish to pass additional parameters such as arguments we can do so like this: I think we have a problem!

Heres an example of halting a request where we specify the message body:. We do this using pass. In the following example if a parameter isnt the username we expect rick-astley we simply pass it on:. There are also handler methods that can assist with sessions specifically, cookie-based session handling.

By default enable: If this is not desired, you can not call this and instead use some Rack middleware instead. For more on this see here. This only touches the surface of what can be done using routes and handlers, but is sufficient for us to write the Sinatra-powered API service we require in the practical section of this chapter. Out of the box, we can begin using templates in our Sinatra applications with ERB.

ERB is included with Ruby and allows Ruby code to be added to any plain text document for the purpose of generating information or flow control. In the following example using an ERB template, note that views are by default located in the views directory of our application.

A useful Sinatra convention worth noting is how layouts are handled. Haml is a popular alternative to ERB which offers an abstract syntax for writing application templates. It has been said to be:. One of the first things we notice is that the Haml snippet looks significantly more like CSS than it does traditional markup.

In the list of Haml features, we briefly mentioned web designers. As developers, we regularly need to communicate and work with designers, but we always have to remember that at the end of the day, they are not programmers. This is due to whitespace being used for nesting in place of the classic HTML markup approach of closing tags.

To create a connection using localhost, we simply specify the driver as a dependency. What is returned from inserting a note into the notes collection is an ObjectId reference for the note from Mongo. This is useful as we can re-use it to locate the same document in our database. Useful to know: Whilst we opted for the MongoDB Ruby Driver for this stack, you may also be interested in DataMapper - a solution which allows us to use the same API to talk to a number of different datastores.

This works well for both relational and non-relational databases and more information is available on the official project page. The Book also contains a brief tutorial on DataMapper for anyone interested in exploring it further. Together with a MongoDB data store, this will allow us to easily persist data todo items whilst ensuring they are stored in a database.

Remember that the default Todo example included with Backbone. If using OSX or Linux, Ruby may be one of a number of open-source packages that come pre-installed and you can skip over to the next paragraph. In case you would like to check if check if you have Ruby installed, open up the terminal prompt and type:.

Should you need to install Ruby manually e. Alternatively, RVM [http: Next, we will need to install Ruby Gems. Once downloaded, open up a terminal, navigate to the folder where this resides and enter:. There will likely be a version number included in your download and you should make sure to include this when tying the above. Finally, a symlink symbolic link to tie everything togther should be fun as follows:.

With Ruby Gems setup, we can now easily install Sinatra. For Linux or OSX type this in your terminal:. As with other DSLs and frameworks, Sinatra supports a wide range of different templating engines. Haml stands for HTML Abstractional Markup Language and is a lightweight markup language abstraction that can be used to describe HTML without the need to use traditional markup language semantics such as opening and closing tags.

With Ruby Gems, Mongo can be installed in just one line:. Finally, in the second terminal, start the mongo shell which will connect up to localhost by default. Now run the following lines at the terminal:. Finally, navigate to http: The public directory contains the scripts and stylesheets for our application and uses HTML5 Boilerplate as a base.

In our main application view AppView , we want to load any previously stored Todo items in our Mongo database when the view initializes. This is done below with the line Todos. When we attempt to access this from our Sinatra-backed API, it should return a list of all the Todo items that have been previously stored in Mongo. The model for our Todo application remains largely unchanged from the versions previously covered in this book.

It is however worth noting that calling the function model. We want to make sure that for any operations changing underlying data create, update, delete that our Mongo data store correctly reflects these. For app. Next, we create a new connection to Mongo, specifying any custom configuration desired.

Finally we define the routes to be supported by our API. The rest of our routes make use of the params hash and a number of useful helper methods included with the MongoDB Ruby driver. The above is extremely lean for an entire API, but does allow us to read and write data to support the functionality required by our client-side application. For more on what MongoDB and the MongoDB Ruby driver are capable of, please do feel free to read their documentation for more information.

Finally, we move on to the Haml files that define our application index layout. In our Haml snippets below, the forward slash character is used to indicate a comment. When this character is placed at the beginning of a line, it wraps all of the text after it into a HTML comment. This section is by no means the most comprehensive guide on building complex apps using all of the items in this particular stack.

I do however hope it was an introduction sufficient enough to help you decide on what stack to try out for your next project. As you probably know, loose coupling facilitates easier maintainability of apps by removing dependencies where possible. When this is implemented efficiently, its quite easy to see how changes to one part of a system may affect another.

Instead, developers at present are left to fall back on variations of the module or object literal patterns. Whilst native solutions to these problems will be arriving in ES Harmony, the good news is that writing modular JavaScript has never been easier and you can start doing it today.

So, why use RequireJS with Backbone? Although Backbone is excellent when it comes to providing a sanitary structure to your applications, there are a few key areas where some additional help could be used:. In addition to allowing you to clearly declare dependencies, AMD works well in the browser, supports string IDs for dependencies, declaring multiple modules in the same file and gives you easy-to-use tools to avoid polluting the global namespace.

When we write modules in JavaScript, we ideally want to be able to handle the reuse of code units intelligently and sometimes this will mean pulling in other modules at run-time whilst at other times you may want to do this dynamically to avoid a large pay-load when the user first hits your application. Think about the GMail web-client for a moment.

Through dynamic dependency loading, Google could load up the chat module only then, rather than forcing all users to load it when the page first initializes. This can improve performance and load times and can definitely prove useful when building larger applications. As discussed above, the overall goal for the AMD format is to provide a solution for modular JavaScript that developers can use today.

The two key concepts you need to be aware of when using it with a script-loader are a define method for facilitating module definition and a require method for handling dependency loading. A barebone module compatible with RequireJS could be defined using define as follows:. There is also a sugared version of define available that allows you to declare your dependencies as local variables using require.

The require method is typically used to load code in a top-level JavaScript file or within a module should you wish to dynamically fetch dependencies. An example of its usage is:. Note how we alias Underscore. For a view which might require other dependencies such as jQuery, this can similarly be done as follows:. RequireJS has a special plugin called text.

To use the text plugin, simply follow these simple steps:. Download the plugin from http: Next, include the text. In the code snippet below, we assume that RequireJS is being included in our page prior to this code snippet being executed. Any of the other scripts being loaded are just there for the sake of example.

You can then go applying your template to a view in Backbone doing something like:. You may also be interested in looking at Require. I have yet to use it myself, but it comes as a recommended resource. As experienced developers may know, an essential final step when writing both small and large JavaScript web applications is the build process.

The majority of non-trivial apps are likely to consist of more than one or two scripts and so optimizing, minimizing and concatenating your scripts prior to pushing them to production will require your users to download a reduced number if not just one script file. RequireJS has a command line optimization tool called r.

The RequireJS optimizer only concatenates module scripts that have been specified in arrays of string literals passed to top-level i. As clarified by the optimizer docs this means that Backbone modules defined like this:. To get started with r. You could do this completely from the command-line, but a cleaner option is using build profiles. Below is an example of a build file taken from the modular jQuery Mobile app referenced later in this book.

A build profile commonly named app. This will apply all of the necessary optimizations inside the release folder. Hoy vas a hacer reir porque tus ojos se han cansado de ser llanto. Hoy vas a ser la mujer que te de la gana de ser. Hoy te vas a querer como nadie te ha sabido querer. Una mujer valiente, una mujer sonriente mira como pasa. Hoy no has sido la mujer perfecta que esperaban a roto sin pudores las reglas marcadas.

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Congelatorul din partea superioara este adesea alcatuit din 3 sau mai multe compartimente de tip raft. Raspunde Manuela Calin. This example demonstrates two ways you can check to see if a namespace already exists before defining it. Astept recomandari.

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