Central ; in Lux. Because Norman was spoken primarily by the elites and nobles, while the lower classes continued speaking Anglo-Saxon, the main influence of Norman was the introduction of a wide range of loanwords related to politics, legislation and prestigious social domains. For other uses, see English disambiguation. The Cambridge companion to Old English literature Second ed. They are rarely caused by MCCC itself.
Okay, it’s not actually hard to explain.
Instead, you'll tell the bartender your liquor of choice, and they'll work their magic. Seattle has a plethora of locally sourced, gluten-free, vegan, and organic food available, but let's be honest: Sometimes you don't want any of that. Backpack to the heart of Seattle's University District for this popular German bar, complete with rowdy college kids, and a menu of Germany's best brews.
Ready for a challenge? Get a boot of beer for you and your mates — whoever takes the last sip pays! The "Seattle Freeze" is alive and well, but the steamy bowls of pho at Greenleaf will definitely help with that. Locals and tourists will agree that the water taxi has some of the best views of the Seattle skyline.
Ensure you don't look like the latter by wearing your wool socks, hiking boots, and Patagonia jacket. Failure to sample the salted caramel will result in the biggest regret of your life — other than your crazy ex. Behind the barely-marked door, you'll find a well-stocked bar, inventive craft cocktails, and a vibe that's a welcome throwback to the '20s. Head to Greenlake for a stroll around the blissful lake alongside ducks, dog-walkers, and on occasion, a techie in the flesh.
Yes, a hot dog. Every New Yorker knows a pizza slice is the best way to end a night on the town. But every Seattleite knows a night isn't complete without a stop by the local hotdog cart. For a true Seattle experience, make sure to pack on the cream cheese. Come rocking your chicest flannel and trek to Sun Liquor on Capitol Hill. Here you'll find handcrafted adult beverages — like the Mai Tai, of course — that can turn any rainy day sunny in no time.
What's scarier than a bar without PBR? A ghost-guided tour in Pioneer Square, where you can learn about Seattle's spooky history from a Pioneer Square pro. A perfect day-escape — where you can a find solace, and b do yoga on a paddleboard amongst quinoa-eating yuppies. No trip to Seattle is complete without a few drinks and a fun ride.
Take a spin on the South Lake Union Trolley for a scenic tram ride. For a high you won't forget, head to Myrtle Edwards Park for swimming, picnic spots, and Seattle's annual Hempfest.
Forced Diaper Girl Enema Gif Tumblr DatawavLooking for a great view of the the beloved Seahawk's Stadium? Befriend a resident of Stadium Place for a shot that dreams are made of. We incorrectly said it was free in a previous version of this post, but we still think the view is worth it!
Share On facebook Share On facebook Share. Share On vk Share On vk Share. Share On lineapp Share On lineapp. Share On twitter Share On twitter Share. English verbs are inflected for tense and aspect and marked for agreement with present-tense third-person singular subject.
Only the copula verb to be is still inflected for agreement with the plural and first and second person subjects. They form complex tenses, aspects, and moods. Auxiliary verbs differ from other verbs in that they can be followed by the negation, and in that they can occur as the first constituent in a question sentence. Most verbs have six inflectional forms.
The primary forms are a plain present, a third-person singular present, and a preterite past form. The secondary forms are a plain form used for the infinitive, a gerund-participle and a past participle. The first-person present-tense form is am , the third person singular form is and the form are is used second-person singular and all three plurals.
The only verb past participle is been and its gerund-participle is being. English has two primary tenses, past preterit and non-past. The preterit is inflected by using the preterit form of the verb, which for the regular verbs includes the suffix -ed , and for the strong verbs either the suffix -t or a change in the stem vowel.
The non-past form is unmarked except in the third person singular, which takes the suffix -s. English does not have a morphologised future tense. Further aspectual distinctions are encoded by the use of auxiliary verbs, primarily have and be , which encode the contrast between a perfect and non-perfect past tense I have run vs.
I was running , and compound tenses such as preterite perfect I had been running and present perfect I have been running. For the expression of mood, English uses a number of modal auxiliaries, such as can , may , will , shall and the past tense forms could , might , would , should. There is also a subjunctive and an imperative mood, both based on the plain form of the verb i.
It is important that he run every day ; imperative Run! An infinitive form, that uses the plain form of the verb and the preposition to , is used for verbal clauses that are syntactically subordinate to a finite verbal clause. Finite verbal clauses are those that are formed around a verb in the present or preterit form.
In clauses with auxiliary verbs, they are the finite verbs and the main verb is treated as a subordinate clause. For example, he has to go where only the auxiliary verb have is inflected for time and the main verb to go is in the infinitive, or in a complement clause such as I saw him leave , where the main verb is to see which is in a preterite form, and leave is in the infinitive.
English also makes frequent use of constructions traditionally called phrasal verbs , verb phrases that are made up of a verb root and a preposition or particle which follows the verb. The phrase then functions as a single predicate. In terms of intonation the preposition is fused to the verb, but in writing it is written as a separate word. Examples of phrasal verbs are to get up , to ask out , to back up , to give up , to get together , to hang out , to put up with , etc.
The phrasal verb frequently has a highly idiomatic meaning that is more specialised and restricted than what can be simply extrapolated from the combination of verb and preposition complement e. Instead, they consider the construction simply to be a verb with a prepositional phrase as its syntactic complement, i. The function of adverbs is to modify the action or event described by the verb by providing additional information about the manner in which it occurs.
Many adverbs are derived from adjectives with the suffix -ly , but not all, and many speakers tend to omit the suffix in the most commonly used adverbs. For example, in the phrase the woman walked quickly the adverb quickly derived from the adjective quick describes the woman's way of walking. Some commonly used adjectives have irregular adverbial forms, such as good which has the adverbial form well.
Modern English syntax language is moderately analytic. Auxiliary verbs mark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect. English word order has moved from the Germanic verb-second V2 word order to being almost exclusively subject—verb—object SVO. In most sentences, English only marks grammatical relations through word order.
The example below demonstrates how the grammatical roles of each constituent is marked only by the position relative to the verb:. An exception is found in sentences where one of the constituents is a pronoun, in which case it is doubly marked, both by word order and by case inflection, where the subject pronoun precedes the verb and takes the subjective case form, and the object pronoun follows the verb and takes the objective case form.
The example below demonstrates this double marking in a sentence where both object and subject is represented with a third person singular masculine pronoun:. Indirect objects IO of ditransitive verbs can be placed either as the first object in a double object construction S V IO O , such as I gave Jane the book or in a prepositional phrase, such as I gave the book to Jane . In English a sentence may be composed of one or more clauses, that may, in turn, be composed of one or more phrases e.
A clause is built around a verb and includes its constituents, such as any NPs and PPs. Within a sentence, one clause is always the main clause or matrix clause whereas other clauses are subordinate to it. Subordinate clauses may function as arguments of the verb in the main clause. For example, in the phrase I think that you are lying , the main clause is headed by the verb think , the subject is I , but the object of the phrase is the subordinate clause that you are lying.
The subordinating conjunction that shows that the clause that follows is a subordinate clause, but it is often omitted. For example, in the sentence I saw the letter that you received today , the relative clause that you received today specifies the meaning of the word letter , the object of the main clause.
Relative clauses can be introduced by the pronouns who , whose , whom and which as well as by that which can also be omitted. English syntax relies on auxiliary verbs for many functions including the expression of tense, aspect, and mood. Auxiliary verbs form main clauses, and the main verbs function as heads of a subordinate clause of the auxiliary verb.
For example, in the sentence the dog did not find its bone , the clause find its bone is the complement of the negated verb did not. Subject—auxiliary inversion is used in many constructions, including focus, negation, and interrogative constructions. The verb do can be used as an auxiliary even in simple declarative sentences, where it usually serves to add emphasis, as in "I did shut the fridge.
Negation is done with the adverb not , which precedes the main verb and follows an auxiliary verb. A contracted form of not -n't can be used as an enclitic attaching to auxiliary verbs and to the copula verb to be. Just as with questions, many negative constructions require the negation to occur with do-support, thus in Modern English I don't know him is the correct answer to the question Do you know him?
Passive constructions also use auxiliary verbs. A passive construction rephrases an active construction in such a way that the object of the active phrase becomes the subject of the passive phrase, and the subject of the active phrase is either omitted or demoted to a role as an oblique argument introduced in a prepositional phrase.
They are formed by using the past participle either with the auxiliary verb to be or to get , although not all varieties of English allow the use of passives with get. For example, putting the sentence she sees him into the passive becomes he is seen by her , or he gets seen by her. Both yes—no questions and wh -questions in English are mostly formed using subject—auxiliary inversion Am I going tomorrow?
In most cases, interrogative words wh -words; e. For example, in the question What did you see? When the wh -word is the subject or forms part of the subject, no inversion occurs: Who saw the cat? Prepositional phrases can also be fronted when they are the question's theme, e. To whose house did you go last night?
The personal interrogative pronoun who is the only interrogative pronoun to still show inflection for case, with the variant whom serving as the objective case form, although this form may be going out of use in many contexts. While English is a subject-prominent language, at the discourse level it tends to use a topic-comment structure, where the known information topic precedes the new information comment.
Because of the strict SVO syntax, the topic of a sentence generally has to be the grammatical subject of the sentence. In cases where the topic is not the grammatical subject of the sentence, frequently the topic is promoted to subject position through syntactic means.
One way of doing this is through a passive construction, the girl was stung by the bee. Another way is through a cleft sentence where the main clause is demoted to be a complement clause of a copula sentence with a dummy subject such as it or there , e. Through the use of these complex sentence constructions with informationally vacuous subjects, English is able to maintain both a topic-comment sentence structure and a SVO syntax.
Focus constructions emphasise a particular piece of new or salient information within a sentence, generally through allocating the main sentence level stress on the focal constituent. For example, the girl was stung by a bee emphasising it was a bee and not, for example, a wasp that stung her , or The girl was stung by a bee contrasting with another possibility, for example that it was the boy.
For example, That girl over there, she was stung by a bee , emphasises the girl by preposition, but a similar effect could be achieved by postposition, she was stung by a bee, that girl over there , where reference to the girl is established as an "afterthought". Cohesion between sentences is achieved through the use of deictic pronouns as anaphora e. Discourse markers are often the first constituents in sentences.
Discourse markers are also used for stance taking in which speakers position themselves in a specific attitude towards what is being said, for example, no way is that true! I'm hungry the marker boy expressing emphasis. While discourse markers are particularly characteristic of informal and spoken registers of English, they are also used in written and formal registers.
English is a rich language in terms of vocabulary, containing more synonyms than any other language. It is generally stated that English has around , words, or , if obsolete words are counted; this estimate is based on the last full edition of the Oxford English Dictionary from There is one count that puts the English vocabulary at about 1 million words—but that count presumably includes words such as Latin species names , scientific terminology , botanical terms , prefixed and suffixed words, jargon , foreign words of extremely limited English use, and technical acronyms.
Due to its status as an international language, English adopts foreign words quickly, and borrows vocabulary from many other sources. Early studies of English vocabulary by lexicographers , the scholars who formally study vocabulary, compile dictionaries, or both, were impeded by a lack of comprehensive data on actual vocabulary in use from good-quality linguistic corpora ,  collections of actual written texts and spoken passages.
Many statements published before the end of the 20th century about the growth of English vocabulary over time, the dates of first use of various words in English, and the sources of English vocabulary will have to be corrected as new computerised analysis of linguistic corpus data becomes available. English forms new words from existing words or roots in its vocabulary through a variety of processes.
One of the most productive processes in English is conversion,  using a word with a different grammatical role, for example using a noun as a verb or a verb as a noun. Another productive word-formation process is nominal compounding,   producing compound words such as babysitter or ice cream or homesick.
For this reason, lexicographer Philip Gove attributed many such words to the " international scientific vocabulary " ISV when compiling Webster's Third New International Dictionary Another active word-formation process in English is acronyms,  words formed by pronouncing as a single word abbreviations of longer phrases e. NATO , laser. English, besides forming new words from existing words and their roots, also borrows words from other languages.
This adoption of words from other languages is commonplace in many world languages, but English has been especially open to borrowing of foreign words throughout the last 1, years. But one of the consequences of long language contact between French and English in all stages of their development is that the vocabulary of English has a very high percentage of "Latinate" words derived from French, especially, and also from Latin and other Romance languages.
French words from various periods of the development of French now make up one-third of the vocabulary of English. Many of these words are part of English core vocabulary, such as egg and knife. English has also borrowed many words directly from Latin, the ancestor of the Romance languages, during all stages of its development. Latin or Greek are still highly productive sources of stems used to form vocabulary of subjects learned in higher education such as the sciences, philosophy, and mathematics.
English has formal and informal speech registers ; informal registers, including child-directed speech, tend to be made up predominantly of words of Anglo-Saxon origin, while the percentage of vocabulary that is of Latinate origin is higher in legal, scientific, and academic texts. English has a strong influence on the vocabulary of other languages.
Among varieties of English, it is especially American English that influences other languages. Since the ninth century, English has been written in a Latin alphabet also called Roman alphabet. Earlier Old English texts in Anglo-Saxon runes are only short inscriptions. The great majority of literary works in Old English that survive to today are written in the Roman alphabet.
The spelling system, or orthography , of English is multi-layered, with elements of French, Latin, and Greek spelling on top of the native Germanic system. These situations have prompted proposals for spelling reform in English. Although letters and speech sounds do not have a one-to-one correspondence in standard English spelling, spelling rules that take into account syllable structure, phonetic changes in derived words, and word accent are reliable for most English words.
While few scholars agree with Chomsky and Halle that conventional English orthography is "near-optimal",  there is a rationale for current English spelling patterns. Readers of English can generally rely on the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation to be fairly regular for letters or digraphs used to spell consonant sounds.
The differences in the pronunciations of the letters c and g are often signalled by the following letters in standard English spelling. There are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin  or proposals by pedantic scholars in the early period of Modern English to mistakenly follow the spelling patterns of Latin for English words of Germanic origin.
For the vowel sounds of the English language, however, correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are more irregular. There are many more vowel phonemes in English than there are single vowel letters a , e , i , o , u , w , y. As a result, some " long vowels " are often indicated by combinations of letters like the oa in boat , the ow in how , and the ay in stay , or the historically based silent e as in note and cake.
The consequence of this complex orthographic history is that learning to read can be challenging in English. It can take longer for school pupils to become independently fluent readers of English than of many other languages, including Italian, Spanish, and German. English writing also includes a system of punctuation marks that is similar to those used in most alphabetic languages around the world.
The purpose of punctuation is to mark meaningful grammatical relationships in sentences to aid readers in understanding a text and to indicate features important for reading a text aloud. Dialectologists identify many English dialects , which usually refer to regional varieties that differ from each other in terms of patterns of grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation.
The pronunciation of particular areas distinguishes dialects as separate regional accents. As the place where English first evolved, the British Isles, and particularly England, are home to the most diverse dialects. Within the United Kingdom, the Received Pronunciation RP , an educated dialect of South East England , is traditionally used as the broadcast standard and is considered the most prestigious of the British dialects.
The spread of RP also known as BBC English through the media has caused many traditional dialects of rural England to recede, as youths adopt the traits of the prestige variety instead of traits from local dialects. At the time of the Survey of English Dialects , grammar and vocabulary differed across the country, but a process of lexical attrition has led most of this variation to disappear.
Nonetheless this attrition has mostly affected dialectal variation in grammar and vocabulary, and in fact, only 3 percent of the English population actually speak RP, the remainder speaking regional accents and dialects with varying degrees of RP influence. An example of this is H-dropping , which was historically a feature of lower-class London English, particularly Cockney, and can now be heard in the local accents of most parts of England—yet it remains largely absent in broadcasting and among the upper crust of British society.
Within each of these regions several local subdialects exist: Within the Northern region, there is a division between the Yorkshire dialects, and the Geordie dialect spoken in Northumbria around Newcastle, and the Lancashire dialects with local urban dialects in Liverpool Scouse and Manchester Mancunian.
Having been the centre of Danish occupation during the Viking Invasions, Northern English dialects, particularly the Yorkshire dialect, retain Norse features not found in other English varieties. Since the 15th century, southeastern England varieties centred around London, which has been the centre from which dialectal innovations have spread to other dialects. In London, the Cockney dialect was traditionally used by the lower classes, and it was long a socially stigmatised variety.
The spread of Cockney features across the south-east led the media to talk of Estuary English as a new dialect, but the notion was criticised by many linguists on the grounds that London had influencing neighbouring regions throughout history. Scots is today considered a separate language from English, but it has its origins in early Northern Middle English  and developed and changed during its history with influence from other sources, particularly Scots Gaelic and Old Norse.
Scots itself has a number of regional dialects. And in addition to Scots, Scottish English are the varieties of Standard English spoken in Scotland, most varieties are Northern English accents, with some influence from Scots. In Ireland , various forms of English have been spoken since the Norman invasions of the 11th century. In County Wexford , in the area surrounding Dublin , two extinct dialects known as Forth and Bargy and Fingallian developed as offshoots from Early Middle English, and were spoken until the 19th century.
Modern Irish English , however, has its roots in English colonisation in the 17th century. Today Irish English is divided into Ulster English , the Northern Ireland dialect with strong influence from Scots, as well as various dialects of the Republic of Ireland. Like Scottish and most North American accents, almost all Irish accents preserve the rhoticity which has been lost in the dialects influenced by RP.
North American English is fairly homogeneous compared to British English. Today, American accent variation is often increasing at the regional level and decreasing at the very local level,  though most Americans still speak within a phonological continuum of similar accents,  known collectively as General American GA , with differences hardly noticed even among Americans themselves such as Midland and Western American English.
In Southern American English , the most populous American "accent group" outside of GA,  rhoticity now strongly prevails, replacing the region's historical non-rhotic prestige. Today spoken primarily by working- and middle-class African Americans , African-American Vernacular English AAVE is also largely non-rhotic and likely originated among enslaved Africans and African Americans influenced primarily by the non-rhotic, non-standard older Southern dialects.
A minority of linguists,  contrarily, propose that AAVE mostly traces back to African languages spoken by the slaves who had to develop a pidgin or Creole English to communicate with slaves of other ethnic and linguistic origins. AAVE is commonly stigmatised in North America as a form of "broken" or "uneducated" English, as are white Southern accents, but linguists today recognise both as fully developed varieties of English with their own norms shared by a large speech community.
Since , English has been spoken in Oceania , and Australian English has developed as a first language of the vast majority of the inhabitants of the Australian continent, its standard accent being General Australian. The English of neighbouring New Zealand has to a lesser degree become an influential standard variety of the language.
Australian and New Zealand English stand out for their innovative vowels: Australian English also has a contrast between long and short vowels, not found in most other varieties. Australian English grammar aligns closely to British and American English; like American English, collective plural subjects take on a singular verb as in the government is rather than are.
The first significant exposure of the Philippines to the English language occurred in when the British occupied Manila during the Seven Years' War , but this was a brief episode that had no lasting influence. English later became more important and widespread during American rule between and , and remains an official language of the Philippines.
Today, the use of English is ubiquitous in the Philippines, from street signs and marquees, government documents and forms, courtrooms, the media and entertainment industries, the business sector, and other aspects of daily life. One such usage that is also prominent in the country is in speech, where most Filipinos from Manila would use or have been exposed to Taglish , a form of code-switching between Tagalog and English.
A similar code-switching method is used by urban native speakers of Visayan languages called Bislish. English is spoken widely in South Africa and is an official or co-official language in several countries. In South Africa , English has been spoken since , co-existing with Afrikaans and various African languages such as the Khoe and Bantu languages.
SAE is a non-rhotic variety, which tends to follow RP as a norm. It is alone among non-rhotic varieties in lacking intrusive r. There are different L2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. Nigerian English is a dialect of English spoken in Nigeria. Additionally, some new words and collocations have emerged from the language, which come from the need to express concepts specific to the culture of the nation e.
Over million population of Nigerians speak English. Each of these areas are home both to a local variety of English and a local English based creole, combining English and African languages. The most prominent varieties are Jamaican English and Jamaican Creole.
Most Caribbean varieties are based on British English and consequently, most are non-rhotic, except for formal styles of Jamaican English which are often rhotic. Jamaican English differs from RP in its vowel inventory, which has a distinction between long and short vowels rather than tense and lax vowels as in Standard English. As a historical legacy, Indian English tends to take RP as its ideal, and how well this ideal is realised in an individual's speech reflects class distinctions among Indian English speakers.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see English disambiguation. West Germanic language. Language family. Writing system. Signed forms. Regions where English is a majority native language. Regions where English is official but not a majority native language. Frisian West , North , Saterland.
Dutch ; in Africa: Central ; in Lux. Main article: History of English. Old English. Main articles: Middle English and Influence of French on English. Although, from the beginning, Englishmen had three manners of speaking, southern, northern and midlands speech in the middle of the country, Nevertheless, through intermingling and mixing, first with Danes and then with Normans, amongst many the country language has arisen, and some use strange stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing.
Early Modern English. See also: List of territorial entities where English is an official language , Geographical distribution of English speakers , List of countries by English-speaking population , and English-speaking world. Not available. US UK Canada 5. Australia 4. South Africa 1. Ireland 1. Other 5. Foreign language influences in English and Study of global communication.
English phonology. Stress and vowel reduction in English and Intonation in English. English grammar. English clause syntax. Do-support and Subject—auxiliary inversion. Foreign language influences in English. Lists of English loanwords by country or language of origin. English alphabet , English braille , and English orthography. List of dialects of the English language , World Englishes , and regional accents of English.
Speech example. An example of an Essex male with a working-class Estuary accent of the region around London Russell Brand. An example of a Renfrewshire male with a Scottish accent. An example of a woman with a supraregional Irish accent Mary Robinson. An example of a Midwestern U. An example of a Texan male with a Southern U. An example of an Ontario woman with a standard Canadian accent Margaret Atwood.
Australian English and New Zealand English. An example of a male with a general Australian accent. Philippine English and Singapore English. An example of a male with a South African accent. An example of a woman with an educated Nigerian accent Chimamanda Adichie. English — Pronunciation.
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I cuddle right up against them and get as close as possible. As the cups cool, they create a vaccuum, leaving a hicky-like bruising pattern across the skin. Making Magic Happen! Think up nicknames for all your friends, then send them each postcards to alert them. Plan a holiday.