The Pyramid of Cestius is an ancient pyramid in Rome, Italy, near the Porta San Paolo and the Protestant Cemetery. It stands at a fork between two ancient roads, the Via Ostiensis and another road that ran west to the Tiber along the approximate line of the modern Via della Marmorata. Due to its incorporation into the city's fortifications, it is today one of the best-preserved ancient buildings in Rome.Physical attributesThe pyramid was built about 18 BC–12 BC as a tomb for Gaius Cestius, a magistrate and member of one of the four great religious corporations in Rome, the Septemviri Epulonum. It is of brick-faced concrete covered with slabs of white marble standing on a travertine foundation. The pyramid measures 100 Roman feet (29.6 m) square at the base and stands 125 Roman feet (37 m) high.In the interior is the burial chamber, a simple barrel-vaulted rectangular cavity measuring 5.95 metres long, 4.10 m wide and 4.80 m high. When opened in 1660, the chamber was found to be decorated with frescoes, which were recorded by Pietro Santi Bartoli. Only scant traces of these frescoes survive, and no trace of any other contents. The tomb had been sealed when it was built, with no exterior entrance, but had been plundered at some time thereafter, probably during antiquity. Until the end of restoration works in 2015, it was not possible for visitors to access the interior, except by special permission typically only granted to scholars. Since the beginning of May 2015, the pyramid is open to the public every second and fourth Saturday each month. Visitors must arrange their visit in advance.
Protestant Cemetery, RomeDistance: 1.2 miTourist Information Via Caio Cestio 6 (comunicante con l'ingresso de I Gatti della Piramide) Rome, 00153
Il cimitero acattolico di Roma si trova a Roma, nel quartiere di Testaccio, vicino a Porta San Paolo, a lato della Piramide Cestia.
Terme Di CaracallaDistance: 0.7 miTourist Information Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 52 Rome, 00153
Piazza Cavalieri Di MaltaDistance: 0.9 miTourist Information Piazza dei Cavalieri di Malta Rome, 00153
The Circus Maximus is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy. Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire. It measured 621 m in length and 118 m in width and could accommodate over 150,000 spectators. In its fully developed form, it became the model for circuses throughout the Roman Empire. The site is now a public park.Events and usesThe Circus was Rome's largest venue for ludi, public games connected to Roman religious festivals. Ludi were sponsored by leading Romans or the Roman state for the benefit of the Roman people (populus Romanus) and gods. Most were held annually or at annual intervals on the Roman calendar. Others might be given to fulfill a religious vow, such as the games in celebration of a triumph. The earliest known triumph ludi at the Circus were vowed by Tarquin the Proud to Jupiter in the late Regal era for his victory over Pometia.
Il Circo Massimo è un antico circo romano, dedicato alle corse di cavalli, costruito a Roma. Situato nella valle tra il Palatino e l'Aventino, è ricordato come sede di giochi sin dagli inizi della storia della città: nella valle sarebbe avvenuto il mitico episodio del ratto delle Sabine, in occasione dei giochi indetti da Romolo in onore del dio Consus. Di certo l'ampio spazio pianeggiante e la sua prossimità all'approdo del Tevere dove dall'antichità più remota si svolgevano gli scambi commerciali, fecero sì che il luogo costituisse fin dalla fondazione della città lo spazio elettivo in cui condurre attività di mercato e di scambi con altre popolazioni, e – di conseguenza – anche le connesse attività rituali (si pensi all'Ara massima di Ercole) e di socializzazione, come giochi e gare.Con i suoi 600 metri di lunghezza e 140 di larghezza, è considerata la più grande struttura per spettacoli costruita dall'uomo.StoriaLe prime installazioni in legno, probabilmente in gran parte mobili, risalirebbero all'epoca di Tarquinio Prisco, nella prima metà del VI secolo a.C. La costruzione di primi impianti stabili risalirebbe al 329 a.C., quando furono edificati i primi carceres. Le prime strutture in muratura, soprattutto legate alle attrezzature per le gare, si ebbero probabilmente solo nel II secolo a.C. e fu Gaio Giulio Cesare a costruire i primi sedili in muratura e a dare la forma definitiva all'edificio, a partire dal 46 a.C.
The Palatine Hill is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city. It stands 40 metres above the Roman Forum, looking down upon it on one side, and upon the Circus Maximus on the other.It is the etymological origin of the word palace and its cognates in other languages (Italian palazzo, French palais, German Palast, Czech palác, etc.).EtymologyAccording to Livy (59 BC - AD 17) the Palatine hill got its name from the Arcadian settlement of Pallantium. More likely, it is derived from the noun palātum "palate"; Ennius uses it once for the "heaven", and it may be connected with the Etruscan word for sky, falad.The term palace itself stems from Palatium.MythologyAccording to Roman mythology, the Palatine Hill was the location of the cave, known as the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf Lupa that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus thereafter found the infants, and with his wife Acca Larentia raised the children. When they were older, the boys killed their great-uncle (who seized the throne from their grandfather), and they both decided to build a new city of their own on the banks of the River Tiber.
L'arco di Costantino è un arco trionfale a tre fornici, situato a Roma, a breve distanza dal Colosseo. Oltre alla notevole importanza storica come monumento, l'Arco può essere considerato come un vero e proprio museo di scultura romana ufficiale, straordinario per ricchezza e importanza. Le dimensioni generali del prospetto sono di 21 m di altezza, 25,9 metri di larghezza e 7,4 m di profondità.
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch. The arch spans the Via triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph.Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the decorative material incorporated earlier work from the time of the emperors Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius, and is thus a collage. The last of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, it is also the only one to make extensive use of spolia, reusing several major reliefs from 2nd century imperial monuments, which give a striking and famous stylistic contrast to the sculpture newly created for the arch. This earned it the derisive nickname of Cornacchia di Esopo Aesop's Crow.The arch is 21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide and the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. Above the archways is placed the attic, composed of brickwork reveted with marble. A staircase within the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, on the west side, facing the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and sand, it is the largest amphitheatre ever built. The Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72, and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (81–96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name (Flavius).The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, having an average audience of some 65,000; it was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles (for only a short time as the hypogeum was soon filled in with mechanisms to support the other activities), animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.
Tiber IslandDistance: 0.9 miTourist Information Piazza di San Bartolomeo all'isola, 22 Rome, 00153
The Tiber Island is the only island in the Tiber river which runs through Rome. Tiber island is located in the southern bend of the Tiber.The island is boat-shaped, approximately 270m long and 67m wide, and has been connected with bridges to both sides of the river since antiquity. Being a seat of the ancient temple of Asclepius and later a hospital, the island is associated with medicine and healing.HistoryThe island has been linked to the rest of Rome by two bridges since antiquity, and was once called Insula Inter-Duos-Pontes which means "the island between the two bridges". The Ponte Fabricio, the only original bridge in Rome, connects the island from the northeast to the Field of Mars in the rione Sant'Angelo (left bank). The Ponte Cestio, of which only some original parts survived, connects the island to Trastevere on the south (right bank).There is a legend which says that after the fall of the hated tyrant Tarquinius Superbus (510 BC), the angry Romans threw his body into the Tiber. His body then settled onto the bottom where dirt and silt accumulated around it and eventually formed Tiber Island. Another version of the legend says that the people gathered up the wheat and grain of their despised ruler and threw it into the Tiber, where it eventually became the foundation of the island.
The Temple of Venus and Roma Latin: Templum Veneris et Romae is thought to have been the largest temple in Ancient Rome. Located on the Velian Hill, between the eastern edge of the Forum Romanum and the Colosseum, it was dedicated to the goddesses Venus Felix ("Venus the Bringer of Good Fortune") and Roma Aeterna ("Eternal Rome"). The architect was the emperor Hadrian and construction began in 121. It was officially inaugurated by Hadrian in 135, and finished in 141 under Antoninus Pius. Damaged by fire in 307, it was restored with alterations by the emperor Maxentius.HistoryIn order to build the temple, erected on the remnants of the porticoed vestibule to Emperor Nero's Domus Aurea, the Colossus of Nero was moved and placed near the amphitheatre, which shortly afterwards became known as the Colosseum. Unimpressed by his emperor's architectural skills, Hadrian's most brilliant architect, Apollodorus, made a scornful remark on the size of the seated statues within the cellae, saying that they would surely hurt their heads if they tried to stand up from their thrones. Apollodorus was banished and executed not long after this.
The Roman Ghetto or Ghetto of Rome, Ghetto di Roma, was a Jewish ghetto established in 1555 in the Rione Sant'Angelo, in Rome, Italy, in the area surrounded by present-day Via del Portico d'Ottavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto, close to the River Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus. With the exception of brief periods under Napoleon from 1808 to 1815 and under the Roman Republics of 1798-99 and 1849, the ghetto of Rome was controlled by the papacy until the capture of Rome in 1870.
The Temple of Saturn is a temple to the god Saturn in ancient Rome. The original dedication of a temple to Saturn was traditionally dated to 497 BC, but ancient writers disagreed greatly about the history of this site. The ruins of the temple stand at the foot of the Capitoline Hill in the western end of the Forum Romanum.ArchaeologyGradual collapse has left nothing but the remains of the front portico standing. The partially preserved pediment displays the inscription Senatus Populusque Romanus incendio consumptum restituit, meaning "The Senate and People of Rome have restored consumed by fire". The pediment and eight surviving columns represent one of the iconic images of Rome's ancient architectural heritage.HistoryConstruction of the temple is thought to have begun in the later years of the Roman Kingdom under Tarquinius Superbus. Its inauguration by the Consul Titus Lartius took place in the early years of the Republic. The temple was completely reconstructed by Munatius Plancus in 42 BC.
The Porticus Octaviae is an ancient structure in Rome.The structure was built by Augustus in the name of his sister, Octavia Minor, sometime after 27 BC, in place of the Porticus Metelli. The colonnaded walks of the portico enclosed the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina, next to the Theater of Marcellus. It burned in 80 AD and was restored, probably by Domitian, and again after a second fire in 203 AD by Septimius Severus and Caracalla. It was adorned with foreign marble and contained many famous works of art, enumerated in Pliny's Natural History. The structure was damaged by an earthquake in 442 AD, when two of the destroyed columns were replaced with an archway which still stands. The church of Sant'Angelo in Pescheria was built in the ruins circa 770 AD.Besides the pre-existing temples, the enclosure included a library erected by Octavia in memory of her son Marcus Claudius Marcellus, the curia Octaviae, and a schola. Whether these were different parts of one building, or entirely different structures, is uncertain. It was probably in the curia that the senate is recorded as meeting. The whole is referred to by Pliny the Elder as Octaviae opera.
Santa Balbina is a basilica church in Rome, devoted to St. Balbina. It was built in the 4th century over the house of consul Lucius Fabius Cilo on the Aventine Hill, behind the Baths of Caracalla. Possibly the ancient Titulus Tigridae, the basilica was consecrated by Pope Gregory I.The adjoining monastery has a commanding medieval defence tower. Inside the basilica there is a very fine episcopal chair with Cosmatesque decoration from the 13th century. The church was heavily restored in the 1930s when frescoes were discovered on the side walls from the 9th to 14th centuries. The Baroque frescoes in the apse and the triumphal arch were painted by Anastasio Fontebuoni in 1599. The triumphal arch is decorated with the figures of Ss Paul and Peter while in the apse we can see St Balbina between other martyrs.An ancient sarcophagus was also discovered during the restoration. It is now used as a font.In 1270 the first known Hungarian cardinal, István Váncsa was buried in the basilica. Another 13th century Hungarian clergyman, Pál, Bishop of Paphos, erected an altar in the church for Saint Nicolas. Both the altar and the grave disappeared during later centuries but a plaque commemorates the offerings of Pál.
Embassy of the United States to the Holy See Distance: 0.6 miTourist Information 89 Rue Belliard Rome, Italy
The Embassy of the United States of America to the Holy See is the diplomatic mission of United States of America to the Holy See, a term referring to the central government and universal reach of the Roman Catholic Church. The current embassy moved to new headquarters in September 2015 in a separate building on the same compound as the United States Embassy Rome. The embassy was previously located on Aventine Hill in the Villa Domiziana in Rome, Italy, which was built as a private residence in 1953. In 1994, the U.S. government acquired the property as the new chancery for embassy. On August 1, 2013, Ken Hackett was confirmed by the U.S. Senate as the new Ambassador to the Holy See.The embassy is a part of the "Tri-Mission Community" in Rome, the other two being the Embassy of the United States, Rome and the United States Mission to the U.N. Agencies in Rome.HistoryFormal diplomatic relations with the Holy See were established in 1984 by President Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II. The mission works in partnership with the Holy See on global issues including HIV/AIDS, world hunger, religious freedom, the environment, and human rights.
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Rione Monti Distance: 0.4 miTourist Information Piazza della Madonna dei Monti Rome, Italy 00184
Trajan's Forum was the last of the Imperial fora to be constructed in ancient Rome. The architect Apollodorus of Damascus oversaw its construction.HistoryThis forum was built on the order of the emperor Trajan with the spoils of war from the conquest of Dacia, which ended in 106. The Fasti Ostienses state that the Forum was inaugurated in 112, while Trajan's Column was erected and then inaugurated in 113.To build this monumental complex, extensive excavations were required: workers eliminated the sides of the Quirinal and Capitoline (Campidoglio) Hills, which closed the valley occupied by the Imperial forums toward the Campus Martius.It is possible that the excavations were initiated under Emperor Domitian, while the project of the Forum was completely attributed to the architect Apollodorus of Damascus, who also accompanied Emperor Trajan in the Dacian campaign.During the time of the construction, several other projects took place: the construction of the Markets of Trajan, and the renovation of the Caesar's Forum (where the Basilica Argentaria was built) and the Temple of Venus Genetrix.
Acquario Romano Distance: 0.7 miTourist Information Piazza Manfredo Fanti, 47 Rome, Italy 00185
The Acquario Romano is a building placed in piazza Manfredo Fanti, Rome, Italy.DescriptionDesigned by Ettore Bernich and built between 1885 and 1887, the building hosted an aquarium just for few years; later it was used as a depot of the near teatro dell'Opera, and sometimes for fairs and exhibitions.A typical building of the age of king Umberto I, it has a circular plan and shows a pronaos with aediculas. Decorations with marine subject are inserted between the sculptures into the aediculas; between the caryatids are placed some medallions. The cylindrical body of the building is subdivided by lesenes and pilasters.After a period of abandon, it was restored and used as a museum and seat for performances and concerts. It presently hosts the Casa dell'Architettura.