The Republic Monument is a notable monument located at Taksim Square in Istanbul, Turkey to commemorate the formation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Built in two and half years with financial support from the population and unveiled by Dr. Hakkı Şinasi Pasha on August 8, 1928, it was designed by Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica.The 11m high monument portrays the founders of the Turkish Republic, prominent are depictions of Kemal Atatürk, who commissioned the work, his assistant İsmet İnönü, and Fevzi Çakmak. The monument has two sides, the side facing northward depicts Atatürk at an earlier period and the other one facing Istiklal Caddesi has Atatürk and his comrades dressed in modern, western-European clothing, symbolizing him in both his roles, as military commander-in-chief and as statesman.Mikhail Frunze, an important leader of the October Revolution, and Kliment Voroshilov, a Marshal of the Soviet Union, are among the group behind Atatürk. Their presence in the monument, ordered by Atatürk, points out to the military aid given by Vladimir Lenin during the Turkish War of Independence in 1920.
The Galata Bridge is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul, Turkey. From the end of the 19th century in particular, the bridge has featured in Turkish literature, theater, poetry and novels.HistoryThe first recorded bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built during the reign of Justinian the Great in the 6th century, close to the area near the Theodosian Land Walls at the western end of the city.In 1453, during the Fall of Constantinople, the Turks assembled a mobile bridge by placing their ships side by side across the water, so that their troops could move from one side of the Golden Horn to the other.In the years 1502–1503, there were plans to construct the first bridge at the current location. Sultan Bayezid II solicited a design and Leonardo da Vinci, utilizing three well-known geometrical principles, the pressed-bow, parabolic curve and keystone arch, created an unprecedented single span 240 m long and 24 m wide bridge for the Golden Horn, which would have become the longest bridge in the world of that time, had it been constructed. However, the ambitious design was not approved by the Sultan.A smaller-scale version of Leonardo da Vinci's Golden Horn Bridge was brought to life in 2001 near Oslo, Norway by the contemporary artist Vebjørn Sand, the first civil engineering project based on a Leonardo da Vinci sketch to be constructed. The Leonardo Bridge Project hopes to build the design as a practical footbridge around the world, including the Golden Horn in Istanbul, using local materials and collaborating with local artisans as a global public art project. The Wall Street Journal referred to the Project as a "...logo for the nations."
The Galata Tower — called Christea Turris by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, just to the north of the Golden Horn's junction with the Bosphorus. One of the city's most striking landmarks, it is a high, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbul's historic peninsula and its environs.DescriptionThe nine-story tower is 66.90 meters tall (62.59 m without the ornament on top, 51.65 m at the observation deck), and was the city's tallest structure when it was built. The elevation at ground level is 35 meters above sea-level. The tower has an external diameter of 16.45 meters at the base, an 8.95 meters diameter inside, and walls that are 3.75 meters thick.There is a restaurant and café on its upper floors which command a magnificent view of Istanbul and the Bosphorus. Also located on the upper floors is a night club which hosts a Turkish show. There are two operating elevators that carry visitors from the lower level to the upper levels.HistoryThe Romanesque style tower was built as Christea Turris (Tower of Christ) in 1348 during an expansion of the Genoese colony in Constantinople. Galata Tower was the tallest building in Istanbul at 219½ feet (66.9 m) when it was built in 1348. It was built to replace the old Tower of Galata, an original Byzantine tower named Megalos Pyrgos (English: Great Tower) which controlled the northern end of the massive sea chain that closed the entrance to the Golden Horn. That tower was on a different site and was largely destroyed in 1203, during the Fourth Crusade of 1202–1204.
Galata Kulesi, İstanbul'un Galata semtinde bulunan bir kule. 528 yılında inşa edilen yapı, şehrin önemli sembolleri arasındadır. İstanbul Boğazı ve Haliç, kuleden panoramik olarak izlenebilmektedir. UNESCO, 2013'te kuleyi Dünya Mirası Geçici Listesi'ne dahil etti.TarihçeGalata Kulesi dünyanın en eski kulelerinden biri olup, Bizans İmparatoru Anastasius tarafından 528 yılında Fener Kulesi olarak inşa ettirilmiştir. 1204 yılındaki IV. Haçlı Seferi'nde geniş çapta tahrip edilen kule, daha sonra 1348 yılında "İsa Kulesi" adıyla yığma taşlar kullanılarak Cenevizliler tarafından Galata surlarına ek olarak yeniden yapılmıştır. 1348 yılında yeniden yapıldığında kentin en büyük binası olmuştur.Galata kulesi 1445-1446 yılları arasında yükseltilmiştir. Kule Türklerin eline geçtikten sonra hemen her yüzyıl yenilenmiş ve tamir edilmiştir. 16. yüzyılda Kasımpaşa tersanelerinde çalıştırılan Hristiyan savaş esirlerinin barınağı olarak kullanılmıştır. Sultan III. Murat'ın müsaadesiyle burada müneccim Takiyüddin tarafından bir rasathane kurulmuş, ancak bu rasathane 1579'da kapatılmıştır.
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Hamam 1800 yıllarda yaptırılmıştır. Yapı çifte planlıdır. Hamam değişik plan düzenlemesi ile dikkati çekmektedir. Çifte planlı hamamlar genellikle sırt sırta bitişik vaziyette inşa edilmiştir, erkekler kısmı kuzeye, kadınlar kısmı güneye yerleştirilmiştir. Erkekler ve kadınlar kısmı birbirinin simetriğidir. Birbirlerinden farkları giriş kısımlarının değişik şekilde düzenlenmesidir. Her iki kısımda soyunmalık, ılıklık ve sıcaklık mekânlarından oluşmaktadır. Soyunmalığın üzeri kubbe ile örtülü ve kubbenin ortasında aydınlık feneri yer alır. Enine dikdörtgen planlı ılıklık iki kubbe ile örtülüdür.
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Dolmabahçe Palace located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coastline of the Bosphorus strait, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922 (with Yıldız Palace being used in the interim).LocationThe site of Dolmabahçe was originally a bay on the Bosphorus which was used for the anchorage of the Ottoman fleet. The area was reclaimed gradually during the 18th century to become an imperial garden, much appreciated by the Ottoman sultans; it is from this garden that the name Dolmabahçe (Filled-in Garden) comes from the Turkish dolma meaning "filled" and bahçe meaning "garden." Various small summer palaces and wooden pavilions were built here during the 18th and 19th centuries ultimately forming a palace complex named Beşiktaş Waterfront Palace. The area of 110,000 m² is confined by Bosphorus on the east side, while a steep precipice bounds it on the west side, such that after the building of the new 45,000 m² monoblock Dolmabahçe Palace a relatively limited space has remained for a garden complex which would normally surround such a palace.HistoryDolmabahçe Palace was ordered by the Empire's 31st Sultan, Abdülmecid I, and built between the years 1843 and 1856. Previously, the Sultan and his family had lived at the Topkapı Palace, but as the medieval Topkapı was lacking in contemporary style, luxury, and comfort, as compared to the palaces of the European monarchs, Abdülmecid decided to build a new modern palace near the site of the former Beşiktaş Palace, which was demolished. Hacı Said Ağa was responsible for the construction works, while the project was realized by architects Garabet Balyan, his son Nigoğayos Balyan and Evanis Kalfa (members of the Armenian Balyan family of Ottoman court architects).
Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi kısaca MSGSÜ, merkez kampüsü İstanbul Fındıklı semtinde bulunan devlet üniversitesidir.TarihçeMimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi, sanat tarihçisi, arkeolog, müzeci, ressam, mimar Osman Hamdi Bey tarafından 1882'de Mekteb-i Sanayi-i Nefise-i Şahane adıyla kuruldu ve 2 Mart 1883'de 8 eğitmen ve 20 öğrencisi ile öğretime başladı.Kuruluşundaki eğitim kadrosu, Müdür-i Umumi Osman Hamdi Bey; Dahili müdür ve heykel öğretmeni Oskan Efendi; Fenn-i Mimari öğretmeni Alexandre Vallaury; Yağlıboya resim öğretmeni Salvatore Valeri; Karakalem resim öğretmeni Warnia-Zarzecki; Tarih ve tarih-i sanat öğretmeni Aristoklis Efendi; Ulum-u riyaziye (Fen Bilgisi) öğretmeni Kaymakam Hasan Fuat Bey; Teşrih (Anatomi) öğretmeni Kolağası Yusuf Rami Efendi'den oluşmaktaydı. Bu kadroya, 1892 yılında Hakkaklık (Gravür) öğretmeni olarak Monsieur Napier de katıldı.Türkiye'de ilk sanat ve mimarlık yüksek okulu olan kurum, 1928’de Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi adını aldı ve böylece Türkiye'de akademi unvanını alan ilk yükseköğretim kurumu oldu.
Santa Maria Draperis Kilisesi Distance: 0.7 miTourist Information Istiklal Caddesi No: 215 Beyoğlu Istanbul, Turkey 34430