The Rue Saint-Lazare is a street in the 8th and 9th arrondissements of Paris. It starts at 9 Rue Bourdaloue and 1 Rue Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, and ends at Place Gabriel-Péri and Rue de Rome.HistoryThis street already existed in 1700 under the name of rue des Porcherons or rue d'Argenteuil, and connected the villages of Roule and Ville-L’Évêque to the village of Porcherons. In 1734 it was still only lined with few buildings. The present name dates from 1770 and comes from the Maison Saint-Lazare toward which it led (via the rues Lamartine, Bleue, and Paradis) and which had been used as a leprosarium since the Middle Ages; it was converted into the Prison Saint-Lazare in 1793. It stood at the current location of no 117 rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis, in the 10th arrondissement.A ministerial decision of 12 Fructidor V (29 August 1797) fixed the minimum width of the street at 10 meters. This width was increased to 11 meters by a royal decree of 3 August 1838. An order of 3 September 1843 declared the public utility of expansion to 20 meters to the right of the properties at numbers 115-121 to create the Cour du Havre.The Gare Saint-Lazare was built in 1837. An alley, the "Impasse Bony", created in 1826 and located at the site of the Hotel Terminus, was used for unloading luggage. The Cour de Rome, in front of the station on the west side, encompassed the old "Impasse d’Argenteuil", which opened onto the Rue du Rocher.
The Conciergerie is a building in Paris, France, located on the west of the Île de la Cité (literally "Island of the City"), formerly a prison but presently used mostly for law courts. It was part of the former royal palace, the Palais de la Cité, which consisted of the Conciergerie, Palais de Justice and the Sainte-Chapelle. Hundreds of prisoners during the French Revolution were taken from the Conciergerie to be executed by guillotine at a number of locations around Paris.The Middle AgesThe west part of the island was originally the site of a Merovingian palace, and was known initially as the Palais de la Cité. From the 10th to the 14th centuries it was the main palace of the medieval Kings of France. During the reigns of Louis IX (Saint Louis) (1214–1270) and Philippe IV (Philip the Fair) (1284–1314) the Merovingian palace was extended and fortified more extensively.Louis IX added the Sainte-Chapelle and associated galleries, while Philippe IV created the towered facade on the Seine river side and a large hall. Both are excellent examples of French religious and secular architecture of the period. The Sainte-Chapelle was built in the French royal style to house the crown of thorns that was brought back from the Crusades and to serve as a royal chapel. The "Grande Salle" (Great Hall) was one of the largest in Europe, and its lower story, known as "La Salle des Gens d'Armes" (The Hall of the Soldiers) survives at 64m long, 27.5m wide and 8.5m high. It was used as a dining room for the 2,000 staff members who worked in the palace. It was heated with four large fireplaces and lit by many windows, now blocked. It was also used for royal banquets and judicial proceedings. The neighboring Salle des Gardes was used as an antechamber to the Great Hall immediately above, where the king held his lit de justice (a session of parliament in the king's presence).
The Institut de France is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.The Institute, located in Paris, manages approximately 1,000 foundations, as well as museums and châteaux open for visit. It also awards prizes and subsidies, which amounted to a total of €5,028,190.55 for 2002. Most of these prizes are awarded by the Institute on the recommendation of the académies.HistoryThe Institut de France was established on 25 October 1795, by the French government.Académies Académie française (French Academy, concerning the French language) – initiated 1635, suppressed 1793, restored 1803 as a division of the institute. Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (Academy of Humanities) – initiated 1663. Académie des sciences (Academy of Sciences) – initiated 1666. Académie des beaux-arts (Academy of Fine Arts) – created 1816 as the merger of the Académie de peinture et de sculpture (Academy of Painting and Sculpture, initiated 1648) Académie de musique (Academy of Music, initiated 1669) and Académie d'architecture (Academy of Architecture, initiated 1671)
Saint-Jacques Tower is a monument located in the 4th arrondissement of Paris, France, on Rue de Rivoli at Rue Nicolas Flamel. This 52m Flamboyant Gothic tower is all that remains of the former 16th-century Church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie, which was demolished in 1797, during the French Revolution, leaving only the tower. What remains of the destroyed church of St. Jacques La Boucherie is now considered a national historic landmark. The closest métro station is Châtelet.HistoryThe Way of St. JamesThe tower's rich decoration reflects the wealth of its patrons, the wholesale butchers of the nearby Les Halles market. The masons in charge were Jean de Felin, Julien Ménart and Jean de Revier. It was built in 1509 to 1523, during the reign of King Francis I. With a dedication to Saint James the Greater, the ancient church and its landmark tower welcomed pilgrims setting out on the road that led to Tours and headed for the way of St James, which led to the major pilgrimage destination of Santiago de Compostela. A relic of the saint preserved in the church linked it the more strongly and in modern times occasioned its listing in 1998 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO among the sites and structures marking the chemins de Compostelle, the pilgrimage routes in France that led like tributaries of a great stream headed towards Santiago in the northwest of Spain.
The Musée social was a private French institution founded in 1894. In the early twentieth century it became an important center of research into topics such as city planning, social housing and labor organization. For many years it played an important role in influencing government policy.OriginsThe original purpose of the Musée social was to preserve documents from the Social Economy pavilion of the Exposition Universelle (1889). This exposition, one hundred years after the French Revolution, had recorded the many changes in thought about the organization of society that had followed. The project to create the museum came from a meeting of Jules Siegfried, Léon Say and Émile Cheysson with count Joseph Dominique Aldebert de Chambrun in 1894. The count decided to devote his fortune to the foundation, which was officially inaugurated in March 1895. Although called a museum, in fact it became a research institute.Towards the end of the nineteenth century there were many non-governmental organizations interested in reform. The Musée social tried to coordinate the efforts of the groups working on "the social question." The Musée social brought together followers of Frédéric Le Play and others who were interested in improving the well-being of the masses while promoting private initiative, going beyond the timid reforms being considered by the government. Many historians consider that the French welfare state originated in the work done at the Musée social.OrganizationThe Musée social was well-funded, and followed an innovative model. It had several sections of study and research with the goal of documenting new topics for debate, possible changes to legislation, and development of new ideas. The institute paid researchers, whose reports were presented at conferences and published in the institute's journals or in collections of work that it published. One section, for example, was headed by Léon de Seilhac and studied contemporary labor movements. Another covered the major strikes during the third republic. Other sections covered topics such as urban and rural sanitation, agriculture, social insurance and employer institutions. All the material was held in the library, and made available to the public.
Solférino is a station on Line 12 of the Paris Métro in the 7th arrondissement.The station opened on 5 November 1910 as part of the original section of the Nord-Sud Company's line A between Porte de Versailles and Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. On 27 March 1931 line A became line 12 of the Métro. It is named after the Rue de Solférino, which is named after the Battle of Solférino a battle fought in 1859 during the Second Italian War of Independence.Solférino is one of the last stations in which the original Nord-Sud Company style of décor has been maintained, with its characteristic large ceramic tablets indicating the name of the station. This is the result of extensive renovation.Nearby are the Musée d'Orsay and the town hall of the 7th arrondissement.
The Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations is a French public sector financial institution created in 1816, and part of the government institutions under the control of the Parliament. Often described as the “investment arm” of the French State, it is defined in the French Monetary and Financial Code as a “public group serving the public interest” and a “long-term investor”. Since 2014, Pierre-René Lemas has served as its CEO.Areas of interventionAs set out within the French Monetary and Financial Code, Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations carries out missions of public interest in support of the public policies implemented by the State and local government bodies. It contributes to the development of enterprises in line with its own proprietorial interests, and may also exercise competitive activities. It ensures, on behalf of the State and local authorities, missions of general interest: Management of the regulated savings funds (Livret A, LDD, etc.) and financing of social housing through these funds;Management of pension plans (47 institutions in management, more than 75 000 employers, a total management of a retiree in five);Management of public authority (European funds, register of greenhouse gases...); Banking management of the French public justice system (notaries, receivers, judicial representatives…)and of Social Security (including consignment);Key stakeholder and provider of funding for the urban policy ;Supporting universities in their projects and providing funding for their autonomy;Financing the development of TPE (very small businesses, microcredit) and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) through BpiFrance;Promoting (research, I4CE Think-tank) and financing sustainable development;Developing territories alongside local authorities(13 regional offices in the country and overseas);Long-term institutional investor;
The rue des Lombards is a street in Paris, France which is famous for hosting three of the main French jazz clubs : Le Baiser Salé, Le Duc des Lombards and the Sunset/Sunside. It was originally a banking center in medieval Paris, a trade dominated by Lombard merchants. It was also shown on the Simpsons episode "To Courier with Love".
The Pont du Carrousel is a bridge in Paris, which spans the River Seine between the Quai des Tuileries and the Quai Voltaire.HistoryBegun in 1831 in the prolongation of the rue des Saints-Pères on the Left Bank, the original bridge was known under that name until its inauguration, in 1834, when king Louis-Philippe named it Pont du Carrousel, because it opened on the Right Bank river frontage of the Palais du Louvre near the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel in front of the Tuileries.The bridge's architect, Antoine-Rémy Polonceau, succeeded in a design that was innovative in several aspects. For one thing, the new structure was an arch bridge, during a period when most bridge construction had turned to suspension bridges; the necessary towers and cables would have been considered unacceptable additions to the Parisian scenery. The structure combined the relatively new material of cast iron with timber. Its graduated cast-iron circular supports were quickly dubbed "napkin rings" (ronds de serviette). At each corner of the bridge were erected classic style stone allegorical sculptures by Louis Petitot, which remain in situ. They represent Industry, Abundance, The City of Paris and The Seine.
The Ministry of Defence is the French department in charge of managing the French Armed Forces inside and outside French soil. It is an active member of NATO and European Defence Community. The actual Minister is Jean-Yves Le Drian.OrganizationMinister of DefenceThe head of the department is the Minister of Defence. He reports directly to the President of the Republic, the Commander-in-Chief of the French Armed Forces.His mission is to organize and manage the country Defense Policy in liaison with other departments. He is also in charge of mobilizing troops and managing the military infrastructure. He is responsible of the French Armed forces security to the Parliament.Chief of Defence StaffThe Chief of Defence Staff reports directly to the Minister. He is in charge of conducting operations, troops training, troops inspection, Programming the forces future, gathering and analyzing Intelligence, He is also in charge of maintaining relationships with other countries. The Chief of Defence Staff was held by French Navy Admiral Édouard Guillaud until February 2014 and is currently headed by French Army General Pierre de Villiers.
The Pont Royal is a bridge crossing the river Seine in Paris. It is the third oldest bridge in Paris, after the Pont Neuf and the Pont Marie.LocationThe Pont Royal links the Right Bank by the Pavillon de Flore with the Left Bank of Paris between rue du Bac and the rue de Beaune. The bridge is constructed with five elliptical arches en plein cintre. A hydrographic ladder, indicating floods' highest level in Paris, is visible on the last pier nearest each bank.HistoryIn 1632, the entrepreneur Pierre Pidou directed the construction of a wooden toll-bridge which would be called Pont Sainte-Anne (in deference to Anne of Austria) or Pont Rouge (due to its color). It was designed to replace the Tuileries ferry upon which the rue du Bac (bac meaning ferry in French) owes its name. The ferry had been offering crossings since 1550. Fragile, this bridge of fifteen arches would be repaired for the first time in 1649, completely redone two years later, burnt in 1654, flooded in 1656, completely rebuilt in 1660, propped up in 1673 and finally carried away by a flood in February 1684. Madame de Sévigné reported that this last incident caused the loss of eight of the bridge's arches.
La mairie du de Paris est le bâtiment qui héberge les services municipaux du 1er arrondissement de Paris de Paris, en France.LocalisationLe bâtiment est situé sur la place du Louvre, en retrait du tracé de la rue du Louvre, à côté de l'église Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, dont elle est le pendant, et face à la colonnade du Louvre de Claude Perrault.HistoireLe bâtiment a été conçu par l'architecte Jacques Hittorff et édifié entre 1858 et 1863.Il a été voulu comme le pendant de la façade de l'église Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois (dont il reprend notamment la rosace et le porche) qui se trouve à proximité, et qu'il flanque de constructions semblables aux immeubles de cette époque.Entre les deux, Théodore Ballu fait construire un beffroi de style gothique flamboyant - que l'on prend souvent pour le clocher de l'église - relié de part et d'autre aux deux édifices par deux portes du même style donnant accès au square qui les sépare.
The Maison de la Chimie is an international conference center in Paris, France, located near the National Assembly.The house is managed by a nonprofit association. Its primary objective is to assist and help scientists and engineers working in the field of chemistry, through the organization of meetings, colloquia and conferences.The house provides office space to various associations involved in scientific and technological fields.Halls and rooms are also rented for meetings whose topics lie outside the field of chemistry; these other usages actually represent 75% to 80% of the activity. Because of its central location in Paris, near the National Assembly and several ministries, the house is particularly sought for meetings with elected officials.
De l'académisme au post-impressionnisme et aux Fauves en passant par l'impressionnisme, les Nabis ou encore le symbolisme, le musée d'Orsay présente peintures, sculptures, photographies, pastels, architecture, arts graphiques et arts décoratifs de la période 1848-1914.
Palais de la Légion d'HonneurDistance: 1.1 miTourist Information 2 rue de la Légion d'honneur 75007 Paris Paris, 75007
The Palais de la Légion d'Honneur is a building on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris. It houses the Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie and is the seat of the Légion d'honneur, the highest order of chivalry of France. The building is also known as the Hôtel de Salm. It is located at 64, Rue de Lille, next to the old Orsay railway station in the 7th arrondissement of Paris.HistoryThe Hôtel de Salm was constructed between 1782 and 1787 by the architect Pierre Rousseau (1751–1810) for the German Prince Frederick III, Prince of Salm-Kyrburg. The revolutionary government nationalised the building, and from 13 May 1804 it was renamed the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur, and became the seat of the newly created Légion d'honneur. The interior was remodeled for that purpose by Antoine-François Peyre, and new exterior sculptures were added by Jean Guillaume Moitte and Philippe-Laurent Roland. An additional building was added in 1866 along the then-new Rue de Solférino, but the palace was destroyed by fire in 1871, under the Paris Commune. A replica was rebuilt soon afterwards under Anastase Mortier, with painters Jean-Paul Laurens and Théodore Maillot providing interior decoration. An additional building was added from 1922–1925 on Rue de Bellechasse in order to house a museum of the Legion of Honour.
Concorde (Paris Métro) Distance: 0.8 miTourist Information Place de la Concorde Paris, France 75008
Concorde is a station on lines 1, 8 and 12 of the Paris Métro in the Place de la Concorde in central Paris and the 1st arrondissement.The station was opened on 13 August 1900, almost a month after trains began running on the original section of line 1 between Porte de Vincennes and Porte Maillot on 19 July 1900. The line 12 platforms were opened on 5 November 1910 as part of the first section of the Nord-Sud Company's line C from Porte de Versailles to Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. This line was taken over by the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris and was renamed line 12 on 27 March 1931. The line 8 platforms were opened on 12 March 1914 on the first section of the line from Beaugrenelle (now Charles Michels on line 10) to Opéra; this line had been opened on 13 July 1913, although the platforms at Concorde and Invalides were not yet finished.